What is Database Management System (DBMS)?

A Database is referred to as the collection of organized data from a computer system and the Database Management System (DBMS) is a software to manage this data. In simple words, when the database is managed by software or system it is called Database Management System (DBMS). Data can be in either form such as name, age, height, contact number, image, file, etc. In this tutorial, we will discuss the basic and advanced concepts of a Database such as definition, types, examples, data model, architecture, functional dependency, transaction, concurrency control, Normalization, File organization, etc. This tutorial for Database Management System (DBMS) is designed for both beginners as well as professionals.

What is Data?

Data is defined as the collection of known things or facts related to an object such as numbers, characters, images, names, etc. Data can be either in an organized or unorganized manner. However, we can process unorganized Data to make it organized, well structured, and useful. In simple words, when data is in well structured or organized form, it is called information.

Example of Data:

Age, name, height, temperature, measurement, file, image, PDF, etc.

What is Database?

A Database is simply Data storage. The database is defined as the organized collection of data such as a table, schema, chart, report, and dashboard, etc.

A database is generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer or mobile device. Using Database, Data can be easily fetched, delete, and modified. The database makes Data Management easier such as Google organizes and stores the entire data of all websites such as website traffic, views, payments, etc in its Database. There are unlimited examples of Databases that can’t be explained in fewer words.

Types of Database

A database can be of various types such as:

Distributed Database

A distributed Database is defined as the collection of two or more interrelated Databases that are physically located at different locations or websites and the processer in these databases is connected via a computer network. It is designed especially for heterogeneous database platforms. In Distributed Database, data is not one site-centric.

Relational Database

A relational database is used to store and organize data in table form to make database relationships in table form. This table is also called Relation. The table consists of rows and columns where row defines one or more categories while column (record) defines the data of individual category. As rows and columns are related to each other in a table, similar categories are interrelated to their data.

Relational Database establishes a relationship between two or more databases in form of a table to make data management easier. It is also known as Relational Database Management System (RDBMS).

Examples of Relational Database: MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server database, etc.

Object-Oriented Database

Object-Oriented Database is used to store and organize data in object form. This database is based on object-oriented programming languages. It is also known as Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODMS) or sometimes called Object Database Management System (ODBMS). In the object-oriented database, the object contains attributes such as properties, fields, and methods that organized the data and make it useful. These objects are stored in the memory in form of data.

Example of Object-Oriented Database:


Centralized Database

When a database is centric-site or located, stored, or organized in a single location such as a computer or server CPU, called a Centralised database. This database is independent of the geographical location of the user which means any user can access the data from any remote location.

Open-Source Database

When a database is open and free for download and manages through copying the database code, called an open-source database. It is used in the operations fields such as marketing, customer service, and employee portals of organizations.

Examples of Open-Source Database:

PostgreSQL, MariaDB, CockroachDB, Neo4j, MongoDB, RethinkDB, Redis, SQLite.

Close-Source Database

These are opposite to Open-Source Database where the database is encrypted via code that is closed or protected from being hacked.

Example of Close-Source Database:

Google Earth, Java, Adobe Flash, Virtual Box, Adobe Reader, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows, WinRAR, mac OS, Adobe Flash Player, etc.

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JSON/Document Database

This database is also called a non-relational database that is used to store data in XML, JSON, or BSON formats. A document database is flexible, semi-structured, and hierarchical in nature and makes it easier for the developer to store and query data in the database. It provides human-readable data and can be accessed logically. It helps to transfer and serialize all types of structured data from a server.

Document database used to do indexing and powerful ad hoc queries of documents. You can store or collect data in a single record as much as you need to have any data type.

Hierarchical database

These are the databases where data is stored and organized in a tree-like structure where nodes represent records and branches represent the fields. The data is stored as a record and interconnected through links. Each record contains one parent and multiple child records hence hierarchical database is used to store data in form of a parent-child relationship model. This database model supports only one-to-many relationships.

Example of Hierarchical Database:

Each organization consists of higher-level management, mid-level management, and then subordinates or colleagues. Similarly, in your family, there is always a hierarchy follows starting from your grand-father, grand-mother, father, mother, elder sibling then you. This relationship forms a tree-like structure.

Network DBMS

Network Database is based on a Network data-model having multiple Parents (owner) as well as multiple Children (members) for each record. It is an advanced version of a hierarchical database to solve the flexibility of the data model. However, this model is more difficult to implement and maintain in comparison to hierarchical, but still, it is in higher demand than a hierarchical database. It also supports many-to-many relationships.

Personal Database

Personal Database referred to store data for personal usage on a personal computer. These are typically small database management system limited to a personal computer. Data stored in the personal database is typically smaller and easily manageable. This database is generated, maintained, and accessed via a programming language like PERL (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language).

Examples of Personal Database:

Bento, HanDBase, Tap Forms HD, and database for iPad, etc.

OLTP Database

OLTP stands for Online Transactional Processing, which is used to perform relatively fast query processing and focused on transaction-oriented tasks. It also includes inserting, deleting, updating a small amount of data in a database. It supports faster and large transaction processing by a large number of users.

Graph Database

Graph Database is used to store, map, and semantic queries in a graph structure. It contains nodes, edges, and properties to store data in their database where nodes are used to store data entities and edges are used to store relationships among the entities.

Examples of Graph Database:

MarkLogic, Microsoft SQL Server 2017, Nebula Graph, and Neo4j.

NoSQL Database

NoSQL (Not Only SQL) is a database that provides the storage and retrieval mechanism of data. This database is non-tabular and stores data differently than relational tables. The data structure used in NoSQL is different from the data structure used in a relational database which enables it relatively faster for processing. It is used to store a large set of distributed data in a more efficient manner.

Cloud Database

A Cloud database is defined as a database service used to store, built, and access data through a cloud platform such as MySQL, Oracle, IBM DB2, and Microsoft SQL Server. It consists of an extra functionality of cloud computing in comparison to all other traditional databases. You need to install software on a cloud platform to implement the database without buying dedicated hardware. It also supports the NoSQL database and relational database. Further, it can be accessed through a web interface or third-party API.

Examples of Cloud Database:

MySQL, Oracle, IBM DB2, and Microsoft SQL Server.

Characteristics of DBMS

A modern DBMS has the following characteristics:

  • It uses real-world entities to design its architecture and also uses behavior and attributes.
  • It contains simple architecture as DMBS enables you to create a table between entities and relations among them.
  • It helps to secure data.
  • It enables a user to view the database from different viewpoints as per their requirements.
  • It reduces the complexity of data relationships.
  • It contains auto-recovery and backup features.
  • DBMS enables us to manipulate data with a clear and logical view.
  • It follows the concept of Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability (ACID) which helps to manipulate the transaction data in a database. Further, ACID helps to maintain a healthy database in the multi-transactional database and in case of failure too.
  • DBMS is equipped with a query language that helps to retrieve and to manipulate of data easily.
  • DBMS provides more consistency than other systems which means every relation in a database remains consistent.
  • DBMS stores metadata which is data about data, to make its process easy.


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