What is Wireless or Wi-Fi network?

Wireless or Wi-Fi technology is the fastest growing and vibrant technology used in the communication sector for two decades. As the name suggests, a Wireless network refers to the transmission of data over a distance without using any wire, cable, or physical medium such as Co-axial cables, Twisted pairs cables, optical fiber, etc. The wireless network is just an electromagnetic transfer of data between two devices such as radio waves, Bluetooth, etc. The wireless network is used for small (few meters) and large distances (a few thousand KM’s) communication. The wireless communication network is bringing revolutionary changes in the networking field. Wireless networks are faster than the wired networks and have lots of advantages compared to a wired network. The wireless network’s biggest advantage is that your device is not bound to a router, while in the wired network, two or more devices are bound to a router.

What is an Electromagnetic wave or EM wave?

Electromagnetic waves or EM waves are created through the vibrations between electric and magnetic fields or oscillating the magnetic and electric fields. When an electric field and magnetic field contact each other, Electromagnetic waves are created there. Hence, in other words, the combination of the electrical and magnetic fields created Electromagnetic waves.

In Electromagnetic waves, both electric and magnetic fields are perpendiculars (at 90°). Further, they are also perpendicular to EM waves.

The velocity of EM Waves in a vacuum: 3.00 x 108 ms-1

Features of Electromagnetic Waves or EM waves

  • The Electromagnetic waves are perpendicular or right-angled to both electrical and magnetic fields.
  • The EM waves are composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields.
  • Either electric or magnetic fields can’t deflect the EM waves.
  • The EM waves can travel in any medium such as air, vacuum, solid material, etc. Further, it does not require any medium for propagation.
  • The EM waves are transverse in nature, which means we can only measure them through their amplitude and wavelength.
  • The highest point of any EM wave is known as a crest, and the lowest point is referred to as a trough.
  • The EM waves can be break into different ranges of frequencies, which are called an Electromagnetic spectrum.

Examples of Electromagnetic waves are microwave, infrared waves, X-rays, gamma rays, etc.

Advantages of Wireless Network

As we know, the wireless network refers to the communication between two or more devices without having any physical medium or physical infrastructure. However, due to the absence of a wire or physical medium, it has many advantages in communication. There are some major benefits of Wireless Network given as follows:

Low cost: Wireless networks do not require any wire or a physical cable, eliminating the wiring expenses or reducing the overall cost.

Convenience: You can access data or information from any geo-location through a wireless network or hotspot, etc. For example, you can send or receive messages to anyone, anywhere and anytime from one place to another without any physical connectivity. Hence, it makes communication more convenient than a wired network.

Mobility or Flexibility: Wireless network does not restrict you from staying at a particular location. It enables users to communicate regardless of their location. You can communicate from office, malls, shops, metro, and buses, etc. Further, you can attend online sessions and office meetings also from being out of office premises.

Privacy and Security: Wireless network providers are supposed to provide more advance and robust security protection to the users.

Speed: A wireless network provides faster uploading and downloading speed than other wired networks. Hence, accuracy and speed are much improved in wireless networks.

Accessibility: Wireless network helps you easily access data from any location where wired network or ground lines can’t be properly laid. For example, you can attend meetings or online classes from your home situated in a rural area. Hence, you can live access to data according to your requirements.

Uninterrupted Connectivity: Wireless network provides better-uninterrupted connectivity during communication. People can connect regardless of their movement. Further, communication with movement is not possible in a wired network.

Productivity: Wireless network provides communication between two or more users without having a physical medium. Hence, it increases the production rate in an organization and also encourages collaboration between employees.

Easy installation: Wireless network does not need any wire or cable, etc. It makes installation easy and quick at a reduced cost.

Disadvantages of Wireless Communication Network

However, Wireless communication is always more advantageous over all other wired networks, but it has some drawbacks, such as security, health issues, interference, etc. The brief description of these as follows:

Health issues:

Wireless system transmits through radio waves or EM waves, hence it affects human health badly. Further, it can cause decease like cancer, so it is always advised to avoid maximum RF radiation.

Security concerns:

In the wireless communication system, data is transmitted in open space from one place to another. Hence, the sensitive data can be copied by hackers also. However, it is not easy to intercept these signals, but there is always a possibility of a data breach.


Interference is the main concern of wireless communication systems because data is transmitted in open space from one place to another. Hence, there is a huge chance of signals interference with other signals. For example, while using Bluetooth and Wi-Fi technologies simultaneously, there are always many chances of interference as these both use the same frequency of 2.4 GHz for communication.

Types of Wireless Communication Network

There are different ways of communicating with one another, such as message, a voice talking, videos, audios, etc. The mobile phone is a technology that provides these all services to the users to transmit information from one place to another. Services such as video calls, TV, radio, telephone, etc., are provided by wireless communication networks.

There are different types of wireless communication network has been developed, and some of them are listed below:

  • TV and Radio broadcast communication system
  • Satellite communication system
  • RADAR communication
  • Mobile communication
  • GPS communication
  • Infrared communication
  • WLAN or Wi-Fi communication
  • Bluetooth system
  • Pager communication
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system

TV and Radio broadcast communication system:

Radio or TV broadcasting is the most traditional type of wireless communication. Further, it is the Simplex Communication system where information or data is allowed to transfer only in one direction. This means information transmitted to the users will always be the same for all.

Satellite communication system:

The satellite communication system is the most commonly used wireless system and also provides global coverage for communication. This system does not affect the population density of any location globally.

Services such as GPS, internet, and satellite phones, mobile, and all other wireless systems are dependent on the satellite communication system by which you can communicate globally anywhere, anytime, and from any location.

RADAR communication system:

RADAR is the acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging through which we can determine the position of any object by using Electromagnetic waves (EM waves). Radar technology is quite similar to a torchlight that operates through radio waves or EM waves instead of light. For example, in the winter season, due to fog, pilots use Radar signals transmitted through airplanes to find the destination.

Mobile communication system:

Telecommunication or mobile telephone communication is the most commonly used wireless communication system in the current era. The telecommunication system has changed the entire human life, and we all are completely dependent on this system now. Mobile is a multipurpose device that is not limited only to calling but also enables different communication services such as infrared, GPS, Bluetooth, FM and internet, etc.

GPS communication:

GPS is the acronym for Global Positioning System, which is used in Satellite communication. Through GPS, we can navigate our target and their speed. Further, we can also find the live and current position of any desired object.

Infrared communication:

The infrared communication system is also the most commonly used wireless communication system used in remote controls of TV, AC, music, etc. It uses the infrared waves of the EM spectrum for small range objects.

WLAN or Wi-Fi communication system:

WLAN stands for Wireless Local Area Network that is also used to provide wireless internet services to its users. Through WLAN, we can connect two or more devices simultaneously to each other and access the internet on these devices such as mobile, tablets, laptops and desktops, etc.

Bluetooth System:

Bluetooth is the most commonly used wireless communication system. Almost all devices such as TV, mobile, camera, speakers, earphones, etc., are enabled with Bluetooth technology. However, Bluetooth is used for a small transmission range of 10 meters maximum.

Pager communication:

Pager is a traditional wireless communication system used to transmit data only in the form of a message or text. Further, similar to TV and radio broadcasting, it is also a simplex type of communication system where users can only receive the message.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system:

Radiofrequency Identification refers to the technology used to collect information and identify objects through low power radio waves. Digital data is encoded in the RFID system in terms of RFID tags or smart labels, which can be identified by a user through radio waves. RFID is quite similar to a barcode that contains the data inside it. RFID works on the Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) method.


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